Most if not all of my jazz students come to me with a background in rock ‘n roll and blues. Therefore, the first thing I like to go over with them is the idea of playing the changes, I often share this quote with them that I picked up somewhere along the line:
A guitar solo is a stream of single notes that elegantly, melodically and artistically imitates the sound of the chords.
It is a brilliant, salient thought that I wish I would’ve thought of myself and this simple statement often points students in a new and fresh direction that they haven’t thought of, because most rock and blues soloing is about working one scale and staying within that pattern, usually the confines of the minor pentatonic (or minor blues) scale which I sometimes refer to as the “pentatonic prison” to drive the point home. Granted, there is no hot guitar playing without blues scales and minor pentatonic scales -everyone needs to learn to use them and use them well.
In education, scaffolding is a technique that moves students learning and understanding by building on their current skill set and what they already know, invariably hastening the learning process. An educator should provide successive levels of training and support that aid in comprehension and skill acquisition –levels that would not be possible without carefully planned support. Like the scaffolding on a construction site, the ideas remain in place until the building can support itself. Scaffolding is an indispensable component of effective teaching, and virtually everyone who considers themselves an educator uses various forms of instructional scaffolding as a matter of course.
Compositionally Sound Solos
My first lesson for the skilled rock/ pop / blues player is learning to play and improvise 3 passes of a blues in E, if you are set up for recording I recommend recording them and asking them for their own thought and a self-critique before jumping into an evaluation. That way, you can use their own words and ideas in your teaching and keep the student from feeling attacked.
Next, I introduce them to this video lesson:
Musically Analyzing the Lesson Plan
Starting off with a well known Blues double stop and a favorite of the late Stevie Ray Vaughn sets the mood and sticks with the style. The 4th bar is the first instance of being slightly outside the box as I am using a diad composed of the b7 and the b5 and sustaining it -challenging the ear. Rehearsal letter A is all about introducing the “key of the moment” concept and approaching chord tones chromatically, again foreign concept to most studying and learning the guitar. Rehearsal letter B is all about chord tone and tensions before ending the 12 bar pass with an homage to Freddie King’s Hideaway.
Once again chord tones and tensions are leaned on heavily to challenge and develop the ear, bar 4 uses some chromatically ascending 9th chords as an homage to big band and Jump Blues arranging. rehearsal letter D is strictly a key of the moment approach employing a slightly atypical major 6th arpeggio.
Starting with a well known Blues cliche the third pass is all about rhythmic accuracy. To make sure students understand the relationship between and the importance of the major and minor 3rd, the point is totally driven home in the second line. The third line is using basic dominant 7th arpeggios before ending with another must know cliche turnaround lick.
Don’t Forget, The Best Guitar School on The Internet Is Free
Most come to teaching guitar as a supplement to a performing and writing career, in fact I would warrant a guess that many turn to guitar tutoring as a profession because doing real music, actually breaking into the music business as a writer and or performer is an extraordinarily difficult process.
No Room For Musical Snobbery
In my career I have had many teachers who were not university or formally educated but we’re still excellent players, good performers and amazingly competent educators such as the legendary Ted Green author of Chord Chemistry and a virtuoso musician, whose education came from listening, studying and other great teachers. I was a guitar student of his after I had graduated from Berkee College of Music and I was in awe of how much he knew, what he could play -I had never, seen anything like it. Believe me, I am no snob when it comes to college degrees and other pedigrees. The proof is in the pudding!
Chord Chemistry by Ted Greene
Having And Being The Right Guitar Teacher
The Legendary Bill Leavitt
There are many people like me however, who actually really want to be guitar teachers and had teaching as a career goal. I decided this while under the mentor-ship and tutelage of William G. Leavitt, author of the Berklee method and one of the finest musicians to have ever lived. There were innumerable amazing lessons and experiences with him but the one thing that really struck me was that anyone can excel when shown the type of teaching, education, respect and mentorship that I saw from him, very quickly into that 6 year relationship I decided to dedicate myself to this art, the art of teaching the guitar. To follow in his footsteps as a guitar teacher.
The Three Mak Daddy Studs Of Music Education
I have based my work as a professional instructor on three of the world’s great theories of music education -the first one of course is the Berkee method, which was adapted from the work of Joseph Schillinger (1895-1943) a truly remarkable and gifted Renaissance man whose work and importance is sadly obscured by time. Schillinger’s mathematical system of music analysis was embraced by all the top musical minds and luminaries of the day like Glen Miller, Tommy Dorsey and Benny Goodman. Schillinger was actually a teacher of the great genius George Gershwin and quite interestingly, he worked with Leon Theremin and was deeply involved with the ‘rhythmicon’ a primitive electronic drum machine.
Joseph Schillinger And The Rhythmicon
It’s a highly mathematical system that see music as movement but I think it bridges the gap between classical European theory and modern jazz music theory courses. Popularized just after World War II the Schillinger system is a work of pure brilliance like the world is seldom seen. Although there are many wonderful things about this system I would like you, the reader to have one takeaway or salient quote for immediate use.
In terms of chord to chord motion the principles of the Berklee/Schillinger method states chords most commonly (root motion) move by fourth, fifth, half step or whole step.
Of course, that is in over generalization but you will find it to be an extraordinarily accurate and useful construct for giving music theory and songwriting lessons. I also find this idea useful in memorizing or transposing songs -test it out.
Our next stud is Carl Orff the author of Carmina Burana (which many people state as their favorite opera or favorite piece of classical music), and developer of an amazing system of musical education called ‘Kindermusik’ that is still in use today and provides one of the core standards for early musical educational at institutions throughout the world. Although the work of Carl Orff is deep and unbelievably complex, and takes years of study to truly understand, let’s find some great take aways from his work for application today.
Carl Orff- A Beautiful Mind.
One most Orff’s most beautiful and interesting idea is this: music lessons should resemble a child’s normal state of play. I absolutely love that and I always think of that when teaching: creating a comfortable play like environment for the student.
For me ‘play’ means jamming so for beginners I say, “learn to be a guitar player by making one chord sound good with picking or strumming”. The student and I begin to play that one chord vamp, with or without a rhythm track, and we start to enjoy some question and answer jamming. For experienced students, find something easy for them, and play with them, using small bites sized ideas to share and exchange. The people who really know the Orff method are able to weave threads of fun, joy and musicality throughout their lessons.
The second takeaway for is Carl Orff is that many lesson plans and or exercises actually involve the idea of dramatizing music, putting little skits to existing music or conversely putting music to existing skits or dances, it’s an amazingly insightful idea.
The application for us as guitar teachers (or music teachers in general) is I simply this: when working with a solo piece, ask the student to imagine a scene from a play or movie –imagining the scene in your head while performing the song. The student is learning to concentrate their musical efforts on the artistic and not the technical aspects.
Zoltan Kodaly: Respected Pedagogue
My third cornerstone theory of musical education, another widely excepted industry-standard in the teaching business is the work of Zoltan Kodaly (1882-1967), the Kodaly Method. Kodaly began music instruction in his homeland of Hungary because he once heard Hungarian children singing folk tunes horribly out of key and decided then to dedicate himself to the art of music education. The Kodaly Method relies heavily on solfege and sight singing of rhythms. You have probably seen his system of hand signals to represent the notes of the major scale.
Kodaly Hand Signals For Major Scale Notes
Kodály’s musical compositions are influenced by Hungarian folk songs (nationalism) and the impressionistic movement and most notably Debussy. Accordingly, the study material is drawn from common knowledge, native language folk songs.
These “mother tongue songs”, the students national music, are the perfect material for study, performance and analysis.
The take away for us guitar teachers ( and music teachers) is that the Kodaly Method stresses children learn songs of their homeland and understand the folk songs and nationalistic pieces of music that come from where they were born, the music that came before them, the music that educated the people they learn from and listen to.
For Implementation of this concept, I always include fiddle tunes, bluegrass melodies, or pieces of traditional American (or world) instrumental music, common knowledge songs we all have in our ears.
By introducing a traditional music component into your guitar lessons you are actually honoring and practicing the Kodaly Method. If you don’t believe me just look at the repertoires of people like Chet Atkins, Roy Clark, or Danny Gatton who take instrumental music folk music and rural music to new heights by making something really special out of those well-known melodies. The example below shows Roy Clark playing a few easy Spanish flavored licks and weaving them into an amazing performance. Encourage any 4th or 5th year player to copy this whole thing by ear, because it’s doable, simple and sounds amazing.
Joe, Carl and Zoltan
Hopefully, now is the time when a few readers will start Googling these cats and make a few Amazon purchases. Hope you like my three friends.
In the annals of modern and popular music there are certain songs that for one reason or another become standards, the common knowledge tunes that musicians play, study and teach. Although many songs have achieved such a stature, in guitar playing one song you’re going to have to play, teach and understand is the 1947 blues classic Stormy Monday, credited to T-Bone Walker entitled Stormy Monday. Its the song that inspired BB King to play the blues and in 1983, the song was inducted into the Blues Foundation Blues Hall of Fame. There is no blues song which is more definitive or important to a guitarist.
I’m Actually Going To Say 3 Definitive Versions (?!)
1947 T-Bone Walker
Surprisingly the chord progression associated with version credited to the author is not what most people think of when working with the tune. The original version is very close to a basic 12 bar blues with 2 notable exceptions:
Walkers use of chromatic passing chords around the I chord is masterful.
In bar 7 there is a subV of V (Ab7) producing the smoothness only ½ steps provide.
1961 Bobby Bland
This arrangement is considered by the cognoscenti to be “the” recording of Stormy Monday and these changes represent the standard approach of most musicians when playing or teaching the song. Plan felt as though he needed something different so he employed a series of chords that I have heard referred to as the “Chicago Changes” where bars 7 & 8 break the feeling of the blues tonality by employing the root motion associated with the first three chords from the key of G major: (again lots and lots of chromatic passing chords which usually are not notated)
G – A minor- B minor
I Maj – II minor – III minor
Brightening up the sound of the progression with strong to the major scale and its harmonies continues in bars 9 & 10 with the inclusion of a good old II –V cadence. Interestingly these are essentially changes for another T-Bone Walker song called ‘Perfume Girl’.
The rhythm guitar on this iconic track is playing passing chords like crazy, often there are too many of them and to my year they obscure the essence of a wonderful chord progression. It’s just my opinion, but so many passing chords make this song very difficult to teach and to replicate. For listening pleasure it’s on the top of my list, you be the judge:
1971 The Allman Brothers
This is the “other definitive” versions of the song for those are Allman Brothers fans or classic rock fans who have not explored blues in great depth. Most musicians do not consider their twist on the chord progression to be the ‘player’s version’ of the song but the twist and turns are very nice.
The important part about this version is the use of IV minor in bar 10, giving that section an amazing, jazzy or almost modal quality –it’s a very sophisticated and jazz like concept. I would explain this as being borrowed from the key of G minor, whose IV chord is indeed C minor. At Berklee this falls under the heading of ‘modal interchange’.
The Strumming Lesson
Although there are a seemingly endless number of sold approaches to playing blues changes,my lesson plan appears below. The suggested rhythmic figure is practically the most simple possible but it encourage the student to accent on 2 and 4, playing with a nice sense of groove and getting the best perspective on the changes and form. (To drive home the basic blues progression my first lesson for the song omits the Ab7 sub V).
Reprinted Form My Book, ” A Blueprint For Hot Guitar”
The Soloing Lesson
If you want a nice sounding solo to Stormy Monday, you have to play the changes. Call it a key of the moment or what have you, one long blues scale is not going to cut it. I often say and write: “a solo is a stream of single notes that imitates the sound of the chord changes”. Below are a few ideas for using Stormy Monday as a vehicle for an improvisation lesson.
Young, Sharp Guitar Guys And The New And Improved Way(! ?)
Teaching in the same facility for a long time has afforded me the opportunity to see how lots of other teachers work, the self-taught, the highly educated and all points in between. Among the new crop of musical school guys there seems to be a disregard for the importance and necessity of a basic understanding of the blues, discarding the innumerable and indispensable benefits and insights that the genre offers to guitarists in their formative years. Relegating the style to the status of a useless old shoe, an artifact from the past that has no bearing on the new modern way to play is a big mistake. Nothing could be more wrong.
1.)Theory And Songwriting Chops Are Developed Through The Study Of Blues Music
I – IV- V Harmony is the most obvious and important reason to teach guitar students blues, learning solid, traditional 12 bar blues rhythm parts in particular, is what gives students familiarity and experience with the most important chords in modern American musical harmony,
The Tonic (or the one chord)
The Sub Dominant (the four chord)
and The Dominant (the five chord).
It’s true that the harmonic settings of rock, blues and jazz music are very often a 12 bar blues or an interesting derivative or variation of the I – IV- V harmony. In a traditional blues, like the one I have outlined below, the functions of the I -IV& V chords are very clearly explained and easily understood, easily heard with a few guided repetitions of the chart that I have reprinted from my book, Blueprint For Hot Guitar. As I have said before, all lesson plans must be neatly copied and professionally prepared, hopefully with software like Finale or Sibelius, this is my habit of constantly prosecuting the case for musical literacy.
Of particular use to a guitar student is the fact that the IV chord in the traditional 12 bar blues form almost always goes back to the I, the tonic, which makes students question traditional music theory where the IV chord is called the sub dominant and often taught strictly as a predecessor to the dominant chord. In rock, pop, jazz and blues music this simply isn’t true, the blues teaches the flavor and meaning if the all-important I –IV cadence. In this and many other regards, blues is an education in basic songwriting, harmonic ear training and repertoire development, as many famous songs are nothing more than 12 bar blues progressions -especially early rock, funk, electric blues and jazz.
Studying and analyzing the harmonic progressions of the simplest to the most complicated of blues songs is absolutely necessary to anyone who wants to understand modern music.
A recommended book is Modern Blues Guitar By Ken Chipkin
Great Blues Book By Kenn Chipkin
2.) Blues Always Seems To Be A Part Of The Current Musical Landscape
Blues music has morphed into an industry and a lifestyle. In the modern world of guitar playing, precious few musical genres have ascended to the lofty ranks of the blues. It’s the common ground that guitar players use to play with each other, form groups and bands and most importantly, have meaningful jam sessions. Any pro jam session in any stage around the world centers its activity around blues progressions, there’s just no two ways about it. Understanding and being able to play the blues even a little bit give your students an easy entrance into the larger world of guitar playing, working and improvising with others and helps them to become firmly rooted in the most important traditional American musical style, -giving them the same knowledge base that many of their musical heroes have.
3.)Becoming Active Guitar Players
Being active in the local blues scene is a good way to jam, have fun, get out and meet people and share ideas and moments with other musicians, eventually developing the skills needed to make money the third and final reason for starting the blues is because it’s like a history lesson the syntax vernacular and vocabulary of modern American music is based in large part on the blues, there is no other style or genre that is as influential in the formation of modern American music as blues and any serious course of study and electric guitar should treat blues with the utmost and highest regard and importance. In many great musical education systems such as kindred music and the code I’m historical perspectives and repertoire development are serious and integral part of the method I say and blues guitar playing hold equally as important a place in the study of modern guitar.
Music education and modern technology are a match made in heaven. Way back in the early days of music programs and apps, (when computers were slow and lacking essential music specific components) I was experimenting with lots of music education, ear training, transcribing and recording programs which I had access to as a student at the world renowned Berklee college of music. I was fascinated by all these new learning approaches and by the progress I was making in key areas such as reading, transcribing and ear training that I was struggling with. Granted, this was in the late 1980’s and you really had to be determined to get those old-school computer things to work. Nowadays it’s a completely different story as most gadgets and programs not only interface beautifully but yield huge payoffs while being easy to learn and use.
Music Notation Programs
A music notation program is essentially the Microsoft Word of music, there are many but the one that I use is called Finale -it was really the first company in the space and in my opinion it’s an essential tool. There are those who would argue for other platforms so I encourage you to make your own choice but I strongly recommend Finale.
For me a music notation program is essential because it allows me to provide students with high quality, subject specific and accurate transcriptions of their lesson material and repertoire pieces that I have complete control over, since I make them myself. The work can be time-consuming but you will quickly amass a nice collection of high-quality reusable lesson plans that will prove to be a time saver in the end.
As guitar teachers we constantly encounter students who have difficulty learning, or simply don’t want to learn to read music. I counteract this problem by constantly prosecuting the case of musical literacy using a process that I liken to reverse engineering. When a student expresses an interest in a particular guitar tune or lick I make or provide an accurate transcription of that music, including tablature, for use as a lesson plan. Most students are very interested to see what their favorite songs look like written out properly, this approach works like a dream for rhythm guitar notation especially because we don’t have the added burden of finding notes, were just talking about the figures but that is a very good way to open the door to more serious discussions of reading music on the guitar. Aside from that having high quality transcriptions of all lesson material inspires confidence and adds to credibility, below is an example of a famous rhythm guitar part that I have used as a teaching tool.
As an unexpected benefit, you also get paying students who actually want to learn to use the software because finale is a central and wonderful tool but does come with a learning curve.
Digital Audio Workstation (DAW)
A DAW is a program that allows you to create and record music using a computer. It’s like a huge bad-ass tape recorder with the ability to edit and manipulate practically anything you could think of, and much more. If you go for the top-of-the-line, it will take years to learn to use it and the cost may well be prohibitive. Fortunately, the entry-level programs are amazing, intuitive and, with an incredible level of functionality that eclipses the finest recording studios of only 20 years ago. The one that I recommend for use in guitar lessons is GarageBand, which comes free with any Apple Computer. If you use a PC, I recommend Sony Acid -both programs are easy, intuitive and fun being based on using loops, small bits of pre-programmed music are passages recorded by you.
These types of programs make the process of figuring out guitar licks and teaching ear training more effective and enjoyable because of the workflow they create by allowing you to isolate, slow down and repeat difficult passages with ease. This works especially well for fast are complicated guitar solos because it seems to demystify the process of creating interesting solos by reducing the work to manageable and understandable chunks.
The number one use of the DAW is of course creating recordings of your student’s ideas, songs and arrangements. By introducing recording projects as part of your guitar lesson not only will you retain students longer, you will be providing, with a richer and deeper lesson experience because you are teaching them to listen to themselves, teaching them to create things, teaching them to find themselves. As you may imagine students and parents alike love this process and are excited to receive the finished products.
You will find it the proper application of music technology will not only add an air of credibility and professionalism to your teaching services, they will become more profitable, effective, interesting and enjoyable. The days of scribbling in a students empty manuscript book are long gone.
When I was a music student at Boston’s Berklee college of music one of the brilliant and legendary guitar teachers in town was Mick Goodrick, who was an amazing guitarist and super nice guy. You may be familiar with his extraordinary and highly recommended book, The Advancing Guitarist.
The Advancing Guitarist: Highly Recommended & Enlightening
Among the many brilliant ideas that Mick has come up with is the idea of playing scales using only one string. From the standpoint of a serious guitar student this obvious and common sense idea seems quite novel and groundbreaking because we are inculcated into the world of position playing as soon as we begin to study. I found this approach and interesting way to break myself out of ruts but also a very valuable one when teaching beginning guitar students. I liked it so much that I wrote about it in my level I guitar book entitled Guitar Buddy, my treatment of this concept as it appears in my book is just below.
Guitar Buddy by Karl Aranjo. Ear Training Lesson
When a scale is thought of in this way the formula for the major scale is clearly evident and teaching any guitar student the major scale is very easy. I also found this approach to be the perfect vehicle for ear training; my students take to this approach like a duck takes to water regardless of their experience, age or ability. It’s a great way of thinking; it breaks ruts and is logical and liberating.
Ear Training Puzzles
In my approach I begin with studying common knowledge melodies such as nursery rhymes, classical themes or Christmas carols. My first step is to present them with the drawing of the first phrase of the melody; I call this the shape of the melody -using it to give the student the general overall idea of a songs melodic motion. Below is the printed material I use for and ear training lesson, I call this my page of puzzles which effectively serves to pique someone’s interest.
All Students Find This To Be A Fun And Thought Provoking Challenge
Making Students Think Is Fun For You!
Finally I told the student to complete the melody using only notes found in the major scale, many students quickly make the realization that a melody is nothing more than a mixed up scale. Finally I discussed the law of melody on law of step-wise which states that the most melodies scale tones are drawn to their step-wise neighbors. This simple ear training lesson is very enjoyable with most of my students eager to take the challenge and solve puzzles. As younger students like consistency and repetitive rituals and interesting drills and exercises, this simple ear training is another great tool for your arsenal.